While peace treaties are different, they usually have a common goal: to outline the conditions for a lasting settlement of hostilities between two belligerents. To that end, the provisions of the peace treaty tend to address common problems. These include the formal definition of boundaries, access and allocation of natural and human resources, payment of relevant debts, recognition of refugees, processes for the settlement of future disputes and identification of conduct relevant to compliance with the provisions of the treaty. In addition to similar provisions, peace treaties have similar formats. They often begin with an introduction or preamble that sets out the purpose of the peace treaty. These introductions often refrain from revising often debated facts about the conflict, but simply explain that peace will begin. For example, the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American War of Independence with Britain in 1783, begins with a preface that indicates the intention of both sides “to forget all past misunderstandings and disputes” and “to ensure both eternal peace and harmony.” The Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty, signed in 1994, contains a preamble that declares “ending the state of war” between the two nations. The Treaty of Versailles of the First World War, signed in 1919, renounced an expanded formal introduction in favor of a descriptive title, followed by immediate articles creating the League of Nations. After the start of the peace treaty, there are provisions – the heart of the peace agreement. Since the provisions can be numerous and deal with many issues, they are often organised within the Treaty, much like other lengthy documents. Many contracts are divided into parts, sections, chapters and finally articles.
The Treaty of Versailles, for example, consists of fifteen parts. Part One creates the League of Nations, while Part II describes the formal boundaries of Germany and Part XI describes the conditions of air navigation. Each part is then divided into sections, each section into chapters and each chapter into articles. For example, Part X contains economic clauses, Section I, of trade relations that contain Chapter 1, customs rules, customs duties and restrictions, which contains Article 264, which expressly prohibited Germany from imposing certain restrictions on imported goods. A less complex treaty, such as the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905, which for example ended the Russo-Japanese War, has no parts, chapters or sections, but only fifteen articles. Similarly, the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty contains 30 articles. The IGV (2005) is an international agreement between 194 States Parties and the World Health Organization to monitor, report on and respond to events that may pose a threat to international public health. The objective of the IGV (2005) is to prevent, protect, control, control and respond to the international spread of diseases in a manner that is appropriate and limited to risks to public health and that avoids unnecessary interference in international transport and trade.
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